If you want to store data in SharePoint you will end up using a list column. Independent of storing documents and their metadata, contacts, tasks or calendar entries you will have a list and that list has columns. Each column can have a different type like text, date and time or a person associated with a document (author).
There are different types of columns like:
Types of SharePoint columns
|Single Line of Text
||Used for document title, calendar entry titles or the name of a task.
||Displays as a single line of text using 255 characters.
|Multiple Lines of Text
||Used for descriptions of documents or tasks. Also used for HTML content.
||Displays as multiple lines using either plain text without HTML formatting or rich text with HTML formatting.
||Used as e.g. to select the type of a document or any other type of classification or categorization.
||Displays as a single drop down if only one selection is possible or as a list with the ability to select multiple items.
|Date and Time
||Used for e.g. the date and time of an calendar entry or the creation and modification time of a document.
||Date and time.
How to create a SharePoint List Column
Open a SharePoint list or library and select the library tab on top of the ribbon. Click to create a column and select the type, enter a name and configure the rest of the column.